Lymph Nodes - Medical Animation



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Lymph Nodes - Medical Animation

 

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Lymph Nodes - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: Lymphatic vessels also called lymphatics carry a watery fluid known as lymph from body tissues. Filter lymph through packets of lymphoid tissue called lymph nodes and return it to the blood stream through a series of larger vessels. Blood capillaries filter fluid from plasma into the tissues. The fluid in combination with water, oxygen, and nutrients comprises interstitial fluid in the extracellular space. Capillaries reabsorb most of the water and cellular wastes like carbon dioxide and urea into the venous bloodstream. Lymphatic capillaries drain the excess extracellular materials to help maintain fluid balance and immunity. Loose endothelial junctions in the lymphatic capillaries allow macromolecules and pathogens to enter joining lymph circulation. Lymphatic capillaries converge into collecting vessels. Lymph nodes occur along these vessels. Inside a lymph node, sinuses connect the cortex comprised of lymphocyte follicles and the medulla dotted with lymphocytes, macrophages, and other antigen-presenting cells as the lymph trickles through the node. Infectious pathogens and other harmful cells such as cancerous tumor cells encounter the immune cells which either destroy them or retain them until an immune response can be mounted to target the infection outside the node. The cleansed lymph consisting mainly of water, protein, and lymphocytes exits the node via an efferent collecting vessel. The vessel wall contractions push the lymph to the next valve which opens and allows lymph to move forward while preventing backflow. The collecting vessels combine into a lymphatic trunks. Each trunk drains lymph from a particular body region and empties into one of two collecting ducts. The right lymphatic duct which drains lymph from the right side of the head, the right arm, and the right side of the thorax to the right subclavian vein or the thoracic duct which delivers lymph from the rest of the body to the left subclavian vein. After passing into the subclavian veins, lymph returns to the bloodstream. ♪ [music] ♪

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